The definition of in situ conservation given by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD 1992) is, however, quite clear and comprehensive, covering both ecosystems and species:
… the conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats and the maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural surroundings and, in the case of domesticated or cultivated species, in the surroundings where they have developed their distinctive properties.
In situ conservation therefore covers not only species and ecosystems but also genetic variability.
Pengertian Konservation In Situ
Definisi konservasi in situ yang diberikan oleh Konvensi Keanekaragaman Hayati (CBD 1992) adalah, bagaimanapun, cukup jelas dan komprehensif, yang meliputi ekosistem dan spesies:
... Konservasi ekosistem dan habitat alami serta pemeliharaan dan pemulihan populasi spesies dalam lingkungan alam mereka dan, dalam kasus jenis terdomestikasi atau budidaya, di dalam lingkungan tempat mereka telah mengembangkan sifat-sifat khas mereka.
Karena itu konservasi In situ meliputi tidak hanya spesies dan ekosistem, tetapi juga variabilitas genetik (germ plasm)
Most of the detailed literature that has been published on in situ conservation of species refers to nationally rare or endangered native species, irrespective of their actual or potential use, and extensive experience of conserving such species has been acquired in many countries. On the other hand, most of the work on conserving species of economic interest refers to three groups of target species: crop wild relatives, forestry tree species, and medicinal and aromatic plants. Many factors can be taken into account in deciding on which of these species to select as targets.
Sebagian besar literatur terperinci yang telah diterbitkan mengatakan bahwa target konservasi in situ spesies mengacu pada spesies asli nasional langka atau terancam yang punah, terlepas dari penggunaan aktual atau potensial, dan pengalaman yang luas dalam melestarikan spesies tersebut. Hal ini telah dilakukan di banyak negara. Di sisi lain, sebagian besar konservasi spesies unruk kepentingan ekonomi mengacu pada tiga kelompok spesies sasaran: tanaman kerabat liar, jenis pohon kehutanan, dan tanaman obat dan aromatik. Banyak faktor yang dapat diperhitungkan dalam menentukan suatu spesies dipilih sebagai target konservasi.
The Concept of In Situ Conservation
To make matters clear, the range of different situations covered by the notion of in situ conservation is as follows:
1. Conservation of natural or semi-natural ecosystems in various types of protected area, with various management aims such as: maintaining ecosystem diversity, biodiversity in general or special landscapes; and providing habitat for target species such as mega-vertebrates, birds, forest species, medicinal plants, or for concentrations of endemic species. Today this type of conservation is often interpreted as meaning conservation of the area and, non-specifically, the biodiversity contained therein.
2. Conservation of agricultural biodiversity, which may be defined as “the maintenance of the diversity present in and among populations of the many species used directly in agriculture, or used as sources of genes, in habitats where such diversity arose and continues to grow” (Brown 1999). This includes:
• Entire agro-ecosystems, including immediately useful species (such as food crops, forages, and agro-forestry species), as well as their wild and weedy relatives that may be growing in nearby areas—see item 3 below.
• Maintenance of domesticates such as landraces or local crop varieties in farmers’ fields, often referred to as ‘on-farm’ conservation (Maxted et al. 2002), ‘in agro’ or ‘inter situ’ (Blixt
3. Conservation and maintenance of selected/target individual species in their natural habitats/ecosystems through conservation or management plans. This differs from general conservation of biodiversity in that particular (target) species are the subject of conservation attention or action. In the case of species of economic importance, the terms ‘genetic conservation’, ‘gene conservation’ or ‘genetic reserve conservation’ are commonly used (Yanchuk 1997).
The areas where such conservation takes place are also known as gene or genetic reserve management units, gene management zones, gene/genetic sanctuaries, and crop reservations. This type of conservation may be defined as “the location, management and monitoring of genetic diversity in natural wild populations within defined areas designated for active, long-term conservation” (Maxted et al. 1997b). Detailed protocols for genetic conservation have been prepared.
4. Recovery programme for nationally or subnationally threatened, rare or endangered wild species (whether of economic importance or not). Species recovery programmes are a special case of in situ conservation of target species. They may often require recovery of their habitats.
5. Restoration, recovery or rehabilitation of habitats. With the widespread ecological destruction now occurring around the world, habitat restoration has attracted growing attention and often environmental legislation requires habitat rehabilitation or restoration of areas affected by activities such as mining to be undertaken to mitigate the damage caused.2 Likewise, species recovery programmes may require not only management and reinforcement of populations but also rehabilitation or restoration of the habitats in which the often fragmented populations occur.