Derivational and inflectional morphemes


1. Derivational morphemes
Booij (2007:72) states Derivational is the formation of lexemes by means of affixation, root and pattern morphology. Katamba (1994:18) explain that lexeme is the vocabulary items that are listed in the dictionary. According to sibarani (2002:37) derivational morpheme is a bound morpheme creating new words by changing either the meaning. Sibarani (2002:40) explains that derivational morphemes have four characteristics, namely:
1. Change meaning of part of speech, e.g. –ment forms nouns, such as judgment from     verbs, such as judge.
2. Typically indicate semantic relations within the word, e.g. the morpheme –ful in painful no particular connection with any other morpheme beyond the word painful.
3. 3. Typically occur with only some members of a class of morphemes e.g. the suffix    -hood occurs with just a few nouns, such as brother, neighbor and knight, but not with most others, e.g. friend, daughter, candle.
4. Typically occur before inflectional suffixes, e.g. in chillier, the derivational suffix -y comes before the inflectional –er. From the explanation it can conclude that Derivational morpheme use to make a new word in language and often used.
2. Inflectional morphemes
Sibarani (2002:38) states inflectional morpheme is a bound morpheme ceating a different form of the same word by changing neither part of speech nor meaning, but only refined and give extra grammatical information about the already existing meaning of a word. Sibarani (2002:40) explains that inflectional morphemes have four characteristics, namely: 
1. Do not change meaning or part of speech, e.g. big and bigger are both adjectives.
2. Typically indicate syntactic or semantic relations between different words in a sentence, e.g. the present tense morpheme -s  in waits shows agreement with the subject of the verb (both are third person singular)
3. Typically occur with all members of some large class of morphemes, e.g. the plural morpheme –s occurs with most noun
4. Typically occur at the margins of words, e.g. the plural morpheme –s always come last in a word, as in babysitter or rationalizations.

D. Noun Formation 
Matthews in Mahmoud (2010: 1) states that noun formation is a sub-field of word formation, which is a branch of lexical morphology, defined as “The study of morphological relations among lexemes”.  Noun-formation has not been tackled separately as a subject in itself, but only within the broader subject of word formation, and there is no separate methodology to be followed.
Noun-formation is not an exception to the word formation process; it follows the same morphology rules.
A noun is a part of speech typically denoting a person, place, thing, animal or idea. It is word used as subject of a sentence, object of verbs or object of preposition. It has numerous suffixes such as - - tion/ -sion, -ity, -ment, -ness, -er/or/ist, -hood, -ship, -nce, -dom. These suffixes are used as noun formation. This noun formation can be derived from either verbs or adjectives. There are some catgories of noun, such as:
Concrete and Abstract Nouns 
Concrete nouns name things that one might be able to touch or see such as grass, floors, or ceiling. 
Abstract nouns 
Named the things that are intangible. Examples of abstract nouns are honesty, philosophy, evil, and freedom. 
Common and Proper Nouns 
Most nouns are common nouns and do not require a capital letter unless they begin a sentence. 
Proper nouns
 Named a particular person, place, thing or idea such as Mrs. Jones, West Regional Library, Nikes, or Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. 

Compound Nouns 
Compound nouns are two words that have been joined to form a new word. Examples are backhoe, fingernail, ice cream, and six-year-old.
Plural Nouns 
Plural nouns show that there is more than one of something such as dogs, walls, or tables. Generally, the plural of a noun is formed by just adding s. 
Other nouns form the plural by changing the word; these are irregular plurals. Examples are children, boxes, and alumni. 
Possessive Nouns 
Usually they precede the item which is being owned such as Bill’s farm, the dog’s collar, or Katie’s room. These are regular possessives which are formed with just an apostrophe and an s.  Nouns that end in s form possessives with just an apostrophe. Examples of these include Hendricks’ house (where the family name is Hendricks, with an s) or Jess’ toys (where Jess’ name ends in s). 
Collective Nouns 
Collective nouns appear to be singular but actually refer to a group. 
 Examples are staff, class, herd, flock, and murder (of crows). 
 Collective nouns require a singular verb when the group acts as a whole. 
 Collective nouns require a plural verb when the members of the group are acting individually.
1. Nouns formed with prefixes
Most of the prefixes used for forming adjectives and verbs are also used for forming noun. 
The examples of prefixes used for forming noun are:
anti- : antimatter, antiparticle
counter- : counterattack, countercurrent
de- : decentralization, decomposition
dis- : disagreement, displacement
en- : enclosure, enlargement
fore- : forecast, foreground
hyper- : hypermarket, hypersensitivity 
il- : illegality, illegibility
im- : imperfection, impossibility
in- : inaccuracy, independence
inter- : interaction, interrelation
ir- : irregularity, irresponsibility
mis- : miscalculation, misinformation
non- : nonsense, non-smoker
over- : overtime, overwork
pre- : precondition, preview
sub- : subdivision, subsection
super- : superconductor, supervision
un- : unbalance, unrest
2. Nouns formed with suffixes
Nouns describing people doing some activity (often an occupation) and people experiencing some activity (suffix –ee), they are:
-ant : assistant, participant 
-ee : attendee, referee, grantee 
-ent : correspondent, respondent
-(e)er : engineer, manager
-ian : librarian, historian 
-ic : mechanic, paramedic
-ician : mathematician, politician
3. Noun formed with infixes
One of the characteristics of English words is that any modifications to them occur at the beginning or the end; mix can have something added at the beginning re-mix or at the end, mixes, mixer, but never in the middle, called infixes.
The examples of noun formed with infixes are:
Awfully : beawfullyware
Bally : absoballylutely
Bleeding : absobleedinglutely
Bleep : fivebleepmile
Blessed : absoblessedlutely
Bloody : railbloodyway
Blooming : absobloominglutely
Jolly : theojo

E. Morphology Related to Noun formation
In traditional grammar, words are the basic units of analysis. Grammarians classify words according to their parts of speech and identify and list the forms that words can show up in. Although the matter is really very complex, for the sake of simplicity we will begin with the assumption that we are all generally able to distinguish words from other linguistic units. 
It will be sufficient for our initial purposes if we assume that words are the main units used for entries in dictionaries. In a later section, we will briefly describe some of their distinctive characteristics. Words are potentially complex units, composed of even more basic units called morphemes. 
A morpheme is the smallest part of a word that has grammatical function or meaning. we will designate them in braces- (). For example, sawed, sawn, sawing,
and saws can all be analyzed into the morphemes (saw) + (ed), (n), (ing) and (s) respectively. None of these last four can be further divided into meaningful units and each occurs in many other words, such as looked, mown, coughing, bakes. {Saw} can occur on its own as a word; it does not have to be attached to another morpheme. It is a free morpheme.
However, none of the other morphemes listed just above is free. Each must be affixed (attached) to some other unit; each can only occur as a part of a word. Morphemes that must be attached as word parts are said to be bound.

F. The characteristic of Pakpak people
Maibang (2009:1) states that Pakpak ethnic group is one of many ethnics group in Sumatera utara especially in Dairi and Pakpak Bharat’s regency and Aceh, especially domicile in Aceh singkil. Maibang also states that there are 52 subdistricts in Sumatera Utara and Aceh singkil which is domiciled by Pakpak people and they have their own characteristic based on the subdistrict or the area they lived. The 52 subdistricts are:  
Dairi regency, 15 subdistrict  
Aceh singkil regency, 15 subdistrict
Pakpak Bharat regency, 8 subdistrict
Subulussalam regency, 5 subdistrict
Tapanuli Tengah regency, 6 subdistrict such as barus subdistrict, barus utara, sosor gadong, Andam dewi, Manduamas and Sirandorung subdistrict
Humbang hasundutan regency, 3 subdistrict such as Pakkat subdistrict, Parlilitan and Tara bintang subdistrict
Pakpak people have 5 areas called suak such as Suak Simsim, pegagan, keppas and kelasen. Maibang in his book ‘mengenl etnis Pakpak lebih dekat’ states until now on still not detected yet the origin of Pakpak people but he said that perhaps pakpak people came from India, it shows from the name of suak kelasen. The original name of kelasen is Kailasen means Dewa Siwa (Indian god) another reason why maibang states that perhaps the original of pakpak people is Indian it’s because of in pakpak and south of India has a kind of flavor namely turmeric that very needed to season their food. 
By the similarities above he said that in all probability Pakpak people came from south India. Pakpak people blessed with the rich of nature such as, the fertile land and blessed with many rivers in there which add the beauty of the nature there and the society is very friendly and easy to consort with the new comer who came to their home town.  They keep protecting the confraternity sense among one to another.

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