The Background of The Study

Language is the way for people to communicate. Communication is an essential part of life. No one can deny that the language has a great role in human life. Imagine what life would be if we could not communicate? There will be nothing. No way of talking anything to anyone, no way to build a relationship with others, no way of passing down information throughout time, and so on. 
Language shows how the culture is. As the part of the culture where human being occupy the important role, language also intervened take part in human being because the function of the language is as the communication equipment use by human being itself. The language needs to be eternalized because the language is the part of culture also the part of human being, especially for region language because region language is the symbol identity of region itself, society, family and environment. 
Indonesia is blessed with so many ethnics who have each region language of them. Of course national language is not complete without region language because many ethnics with different language are one of pride of nationalism, that’s why region language is very important to be tricked. 
By using region language society feels warm feeling, solidarity that’s why the region language is associated as feeling, solidarity and spontaneity. UUD 1945, chapter XV, paragraph 36 states region language is the part of Indonesia’s culture which is alive and protected Indonesia. In correlation’s function of Indonesia language, region language has the function as endorser of national 

language, companion language in specific area and the way to develop region’s culture. The fact is that region language is very important beside of national language, every region language in Indonesia need to be analyzed specifically and the only one of the important region language which should be analyzed in this research is Pakpak language which is related with morphology. 
This researcher is one of the branch of linguistic which is interested to be examined, the reason why the researcher do this research is because the researcher is interested to search the word formation since Nida talked about the language and search some language through the morphology theory, how the word is formed is very interested to be examined. 
In this research, the researcher doesn’t want to search in English language but in Pakpak language, Pakpak language is one of region language in Sumatera utara, Indonesia. Pakpak language is need to be analyzed because the number of people who examine Pakpak language through the morphology theory is still definite and actually this language must be analyzed more for it is not extinct, regio language must be kept because region language is one of nationalism pride.
Pakpak language is one of region language which is still use in Sumatera Utara used by Pakpak society who live in Pakpak Bharat regency and Dairi regency. In foothold as a region language, Pakpak language is not only has a function as pride symbol’s area and identity symbol also the communication equipment in family and society but also has a function as endorser in elementary school in rural as first level and as a tool for developing their culture. 
That thing become a reason why Pakpak language needs to develop and build more and the reason why this research is needed very much, this research can be a medium for understanding of Pakpak language to the reader also can giving the important impact to the native Pakpak using Pakpak language as their first language and not the shamed to speak that language.
Pakpak people is comprise as 5 parts that called as 5 suak, they are: suak simsim domicile in Salak’s subdistrict (Pakpak Bharat), suak Pegagan domicile in Sumbul pegagan (Dairi), suak keppas domicile in Sidiangkat (Dairi), suak kelasen domicile in peliten (Humbahas) and suak boang domicile in Aceh singkil. They have a little bit different dialect but the original one is Pakpak people in simsim who are living in salak subdistrict. 
Pakpak language has the uniqueness themselves from another Batak (Batak Toba, Karo, Simalungun, Angkola and Mandailing) in sound, syntax, grammatical meaning and in forming word, the thing also become a reason why Pakpak language would be analyzed and chosen.
 As Indonesia language even English language need the word formation  Pakpak language too, in this research the researcher will analyze the noun formation in Pakpak language. The theory that will use is morphology because noun formation is related to morphology.
Morphology is the study of morphemes and their arrangements in forming word. Morphemes are the minimal meaningful units which may constitute words or parts of word.
 A noun is a part of speech typically denoting a person, place, thing, animal or idea. It is word used as subject of a sentence, object of verbs or object of preposition. It has numerous suffixes such as - - tion/ -sion, -ity, -ment, -ness, -er/or/ist, -hood, -ship, -nce, -dom. These suffixes are used as noun formation. This noun formation can be derived from either verbs or adjectives
Obviously, noun formation is added by affixes. Affixes itself is content with bound morphemes that cannot stand on its own, like –s or –ed or   -al or even a number of affixes strung together. There are three types of affixes that adding to noun formation, such as: Prefixes, suffixes, infixes. 
Affixation in Pakpak is a process of combination the base word with affixation. It means that the word will lost the meaning without affixation and affixation itself cannot stand alone, they have to be combined to get the meaning.
 The researcher has collected the primary data from the source of the data in this researcher, from short story of Pakpak people. In that short story the researcher found some mistakes in noun formation, for example the word “pencobaan” Pencobaan is wrong form, it must be pencobaen. Pencobaen is a noun after attached by infix pen-en. By this research the research will show how the good way to form the language in Pakpak language.   
The previous research, Basaria (2014) has analyzed the Pakpak language through morphology theory even though it is still not complete at all, by the previous experiment using morphology process it found that the word formation in Pakpak language can analyze through morphology process because it is related to noun formation.
 The previous research also found the morphophonemic process in forming word.  For example the word pangkur (broke ground) is the verb after attached by prefix pe- the meaning is changed to be noun pe- + pangkur become pemangkur in this case there is the change. If it is following the formula, it should be pepangkur but there is a morphophonemic process here. The word /p/ is assimilated by the morphophonemic process and become pemangkur. In other hand the word tutu (pound) is the verb after attached by infix in- the meaning is change to be noun, in- + tutu become tinutu, there is the adding or insertion of phoneme n.
By this research, the researcher will show how the noun is formed well, how is the process of morphophonemic and encourage Pakpak people make another research related to pakpak language for the language is not extinct, highlight that Pakpak language has the uniqueness and need to be preserved. 
Finally, the researcher knows that this researcher is far from the perfectness but the research hope this research will useful to all the readers. 

B. The problems of the study
Based on the background of study, the problems are formulated as the following
1. What kinds of affixation which is forming the noun in Pakpak language?
2. How are the processes of noun formation in Pakpak Language? 
3. How are the morphophonemic rules of noun formation in Pakpak Language?

C. The object of the study 
The objectives of the study are asserted as follow:
1. To find out the noun formation process in Pakpak language
2. To describe the process of noun formation in Pakpak Language
3. To describe the  morphophonemic rules of noun formation in Pakpak language

D. The scope of the study
This research is limit to find out and describe:
Noun formation process, the rule of noun formation and the morphophonemic rule in Pakpak Language, in case: Folklores and short stories written in Pakpak language.

E. The Significance of the Study
The result of this Study is expected to be useful:
1) As one of sources of information about region language in Indonesia especially Pakpak Language 
2) For giving the contribution to another researcher, mainly the researchers who research the same type with this research
3) For the students or the readers who want to enrich their knowledge in morphology inspection
4) For Pakpak people who need the references to their analysis especially in using morphology theory also to add their knowledge about noun formation in their language

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